The CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) provides a comprehensive way to gauge language proficiency. Here’s what learners can typically do at each level:
- A1: Recognize and use familiar phrases, introduce oneself, and handle simple, direct exchanges if the other person speaks slowly and clearly.
- A2: Understand sentences and frequently used expressions about personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment, and can communicate simple and direct exchanges on familiar matters.
- B1: Deal with most situations likely to arise while traveling, describe experiences, events, dreams, and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
- B2: Understand the main ideas of complex text, interact with native speakers quite fluently, and write detailed text on a wide range of subjects.
- C1: Understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognize implicit meaning, express ideas fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions, and use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic, and professional purposes.
- C2: Understand with ease virtually everything heard or read, summarize information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation, and express themselves spontaneously, very fluently, and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in the most complex situations.
This framework helps learners set realistic goals and track their progress in language learning.